Most people living with HIV control the virus thanks to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although this medication is highly effective, the presence of latent viral reservoirs in their bodies means they require lifelong therapy. Studies have demonstrated that immunotherapy combining two anti-HIV antibodies can also suppress HIV, similar to ART. NowRead More →

Certain bacteria can override a defence mechanism of the immune system, so-called programmed cell death, through inhibition of death effector molecules by their outer membranes components. Shigella bacteria, which cause diarrhoea, use lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on their surface to block the effector caspases. Lipopolysaccharides are a component of the bacterial outerRead More →

Mycoplasma infection laboratory

Mycoplasma is an atypical bacterial genus which main characteristic is that naturally lacks cells walls and are the smallest and simplest self-replicating bacteria. The presence of sterols in the plasma membrane helps in regulation of membrane fluidity and protects from osmotic lysis so they don’t need a wall. Some mycoplasma species are pathogenic inRead More →